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Metals form the largest group in the periodic table, and they are also defined according to their position in the periodic table. They are grouped as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, heavy metals and rare earth metals. On the basis of hardness, metals are also distinguished as used metals and non-metals. Usually metals are extracted from their ores in the process called refining. Metals are usually very strong, durable and highly resistant.

A material’s strength in a given application depends on many factors, including its resistance to deformation and cracking, and it often depends on the shape of the member being designed. strengthening mechanisms give engineers the ability to tailor the mechanical properties of materials to suit a variety of different applications. The strengthening of metal means increasing the strength of the metal material by means of alloying, plastic deformation, heat treatment, and the like. 

Copper Alloys 

The copper element is in the same periodic table group as silver and gold.  Therefore, it is relatively inert against chemicals. And, Melting point is 1.085°C (1.984°F) .

Copper alloys become stronger and more ductile as temperature goes down. They also retain excellent impact resistance. These general characteristics have been revealed in tests on 15 copper alloys, including brasses, bronzes and commercially pure coppers. 

Copper iis one of the most electrically conductive of all the metal elements. It iis a weak metal with a tensile strength of about half that of mild carbon steel. This explains why copper is easily formed by hand but is not a good choice for structural applications. Copper is extracted from ore rich in copper sulfides, which is mined today from large open pits in South America, North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. After refinement, the copper can be sold in various industrial forms or as copper cathodes, which are commodities traded on the COMEX and LME.

Copper is considered to be one of the first metals to be used by humans. The main reason for its early discovery and use is that copper can naturally occur in relatively pure forms.By combining copper with other metals, a range of alloys can be made to fit almost any application. The strength and hardness of copper can also be increased by alloying, but this results in a decrease in electrical conductivity.

Copper offers designers a wealth of mechanical and aesthetic qualities. In addition, copper is 100% recyclable and highly durable, so its use completely meets the requirements of

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